USA NPN National Phenology Network

Taking the Pulse of Our Planet

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Peer-reviewed Publications

The USA-NPN has contributed to the development of over 100 peer-reviewed publications. Collectively the models, observational data, and gridded data have served to advance the science of phenology by increasing understanding of phenological patterns and climatic drivers of plants and animals at local to continental scales.

Use the filter below to explore these results by year(s) and/or articles that either Uses the USA-NPN Contemporary or Legacy Data, or Describes or Uses the USA-NPN Program.

  1. J.S. Prevéy, L.E. Parker, C.A. Harrington, C.T. Lamb, M.F. Proctor. 2020. Climate change shifts in habitat suitability and phenology of huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107803.
  2. K. Bórnez, A. Descals, A. Verger, J. Peñuelas. 2020. Land surface phenology from VEGETATION and PROBA-V data. Assessment over deciduous forests. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 84 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2019.101974.
  3. S. Martinuzzi, A.J. Allstadt, A.M. Pidgeon, C.H. Flather, W.M. Jolly, V.C. Radeloff. 2019. Future changes in fire weather, spring droughts, and false springs across U.S. National Forests and Grasslands. Ecological Applications https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1904.
  4. S.D. Taylor, E.P. White. 2019. Automated data‐intensive forecasting of plant phenology throughout the United States. Ecological Applications https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2025.
  5. L. Petrauski, S.F. Owen, G.D. Constantz, J.T. Anderson. 2019. Changes in flowering phenology of Cardamine concatenata and Erythronium americanum over 111 years in the Central Appalachians. Plant Ecology 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-019-00956-7.
  6. A.D. Richardson, K. Hufkens, X. Li, T.R. Ault. 2019. Testing Hopkins’ Bioclimatic Law with PhenoCam data. Applications in Plant Sciences https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1228.
  7. D. Li, B.J. Stucky, J. Deck, B. Baiser, R.P. Guralnick. 2019. The effect of urbanization on plant phenology depends on regional temperature. Nature Ecology & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1004-1.
  8. K.L. Prudic, K. Wilson, M.C. Toshack, K.L. Gerst, A. Rosemartin, T.M. Crimmins, J.C. Oliver. 2019. Creating the Urban Farmer’s Almanac with Citizen Science Data. Insects 10(9) 294. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090294.
  9. S. Piao, Q. Liu, A. Chen, I.A. Janssens, Y. Fu, J. Dai, L. Liu, X. Lian, M. Shen, X. Zhu. 2019. Plant phenology and global climate change: Current progresses and challenges. Global Change Biology 25, 6 1922-1940. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14619.
  10. S.D. Taylor. 2019. pyPhenology: A python framework for plant phenology modelling. The Journal of Open Source Software 3(28) https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.00827.
  11. P.R. Lachapelle, D.E. Albrecht, E.E. Posthumus, L. Barnett, T.M. Crimmins, E. Stancioff, J. Einerson, P.L. Warren. 2019. Building local resilience to climate change through citizen science, environmental education, and decision-making. In: Addressing Climate Change at the Community Level in the United States. Routledge, New York, NY, pp 50-64. .
  12. A.S. Gallinat, R.B. Primack, T.L. Lloyd-Evans. 2019. Can invasive species replace native species as a resource for birds under climate change? A case study on bird-fruit interactions. Biological Conservation https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108268.
  13. Y. Du, B. Yang, S. Chen, K. Ma. 2019. Diverging shifts in spring phenology in response to biodiversity loss in a subtropical forest. Wiley https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12806.
  14. C.M. MacKenzie, R.B. Primack, A.J. Miller‐Rushing. 2019. Trails‐as‐transects: phenology monitoring across heterogeneous microclimates in Acadia National Park, Maine. Ecosphere Volume 10, Issue 3 https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2626.
  15. L. Brenskelle, B.J. Stucky, J. Deck, R. Walls, R.P. Guralnick. 2019. Integrating herbarium specimen observations into global phenology data systems. Applications in Plant Sciences https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1231.
  16. E. Nathan, K. Roth, A.L. Pivovaroff. 2019. Flowering phenology indicates plant flammability in a dominant shrub species. Ecological Indicators 109 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105745.
  17. C.J. Chamberlain, B.I. Cook, G. de Cortazar-Atauri, E.M. Wolkovich. 2019. Rethinking False Spring Risk. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14642.
  18. H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, E.W. Augustijn, E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier. 2019. Exploring differences in spatial patterns and temporal trends of phenological models at continental scale using gridded temperature time-series. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-019-01826-7.
  19. M.A. Crimmins, T.M. Crimmins. 2019. Does an Early Spring Indicate an Early Summer? Relationships between Intra‐seasonal Growing Degree Day Thresholds. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences Volume 124, Issue 7 https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005297.
  20. S.D. Taylor, J.M. Meiners, K. Riemer, M.C. Orr, E.P. White. 2018. Comparison of large‐scale citizen science data and long‐term study data for phenology modeling. Ecology https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2568.
  21. E.K. Waller, T.M. Crimmins, J.J. Walker, E.E. Posthumus, J.F. Weltzin. 2018. Differential changes in the onset of spring across US National Wildlife Refuges and North American migratory bird flyways. PLOS One 13(9) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202495.
  22. E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, R. Zurita-Milla, T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz. 2018. Development and analysis of spring plant phenology products: 36 years of 1-km grids over the conterminous US. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 262 34-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.06.028.
  23. L. D'Orangeville, J. Maxwell, D. Kneeshaw, N. Pederson, L. Duchesne, T. Logan, D. Houle, D. Arseneault, C.M. Beier, D.A. Bishop, D. Druckenbrod, S. Fraver, F. Girard, J. Halman, C. Hansen, J.L. Hart, H. Hartmann, M. Kaye, D. Leblanc, S. Manzoni, R. Ouimet, S. Rayback, C.R. Rollinson, R.P. Phillips. 2018. Drought timing and local climate determine the sensitivity of eastern temperate forests to drought. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14096.
  24. A.F. Howard. 2018. Asclepias Syriaca (Common Milkweed) flowering date shift in response to climate change. Scientific Reports 8 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36152-2.
  25. S. Ren, X. Chen, W. Lang, M.D. Schwartz. 2018. Climatic controls of the spatial patterns of vegetation phenology in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere. American Geophysical Union https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JG004616 .
  26. D. Peng, C. Wu, X. Zhang, L. Yu, A.R. Huete, F. Wang, S. Luo, X. Liu, H. Zhang. 2018. Scaling up spring phenology derived from remote sensing images. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256-257 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.010.
  27. K. Hufkens, D. Basler, T. Milliman, E.K. Melaas, A.D. Richardson. 2018. An integrated phenology modelling framework in R. Methods in Ecology & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12970.
  28. I.W. Park, S.J. Mazer. 2018. Overlooked climate parameters best predict flowering onset: assessing phenological models using the elastic net. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14447.
  29. C.M. Carrillo, T. Ault, D.S. Wilks. 2018. Spring onset predictability in the North American Multi‐Model Ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028597.
  30. Y. Xie, D.L. Civco, J.A. Silander. 2018. Species-specific spring and autumn leaf phenology captured by time-lapse digital cameras. Ecosphere 9(1) https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2089.
  31. H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, J.L. Betancourt. 2018. Influence of source and scale of gridded temperature data on modelled spring onset patterns in the conterminous United States. International Journal of Climatology 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5857.
  32. X. Zhang, L. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Jayavelu, J. Wang, M. Moon, G.M. Henebry, M.A. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf. 2018. Generation and evaluation of the VIIRS land surface phenology product. Remote Sensing of Environment Volume 216 212-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.06.047.
  33. J.M. Yost, P.W. Sweeney, E. Gilbert, G. Nelson, R. Guralnick, A.S. Gallinat, E.R. Ellwood, N. Rossington, C.G. Willis, S.D. Blum, R.L. Walls, E.M. Haston, M.W. Denslow, C.M. Zohner, A.B. Morris, B.J. Stucky, J.R. Carter, D.G. Baxter, K. Bolmgren, E.G. Denny, E. Dean, K.D. Pearson, C.C. Davis, B.D. Mischler, P.S. Soltis, S.J. Mazer. 2018. Digitization protocol for scoring reproductive phenology from herbarium specimens of seed plants. Applications in Plant Science 6(2):e1022 https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1022.
  34. E.E. Posthumus, L.A. Barnett, T.M. Crimmins, J. Einerson, E. Stancioff, P.L. Warren. 2018. Building Local Resilience to Climate Change Through Citizen Science, Environmental Education and Decision-Making. Addressing Climate Change at the Community Level in the United States 50-64. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351211727-4.
  35. L. Liang. 2018. A spatially explicit modeling analysis of adaptive variation in temperate tree phenology. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 266-267 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.12.004.
  36. A.V. Gougherty, S.R. Keller, A. Kruger, C.D. Stylinski, A.J. Elmore, M.C. Fitzpatrick. 2018. Estimating tree phenology from high frequency tree movement data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 263 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.08.020.
  37. R.E. Feldman, I. Žemaitė, A.J. Miller-Rushing. 2018. How training citizen scientists affects the accuracy and precision of phenological data. International Journal of Biometeorology 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1540-4.
  38. L.E.F. Harrer, T. Levi. 2018. The primacy of bears as seed dispersers in salmon-bearing ecosystems. Ecosphere 9(1) https://doi.org/e02076.10.1002/ecs2.2076.
  39. J.Chih Mun Sha, S.Chin Chua, P.Ting Chew, H. Ibrahim, H.Keong Lua, T.Kwan Fung, P. Zhang. 2017. Small-scale variability in a mosaic tropical rainforest influences habitat use of long-tailed macaques. Primates 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-017-0630-y.
  40. K.M. Yule, J.L. Bronstein. 2017. Reproductive ecology of a parasitic plant differs by host species: vector interactions and the maintenance of host races. Oecologia 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-017-4038-6.
  41. D.C. McKinley, A.J. Miller-Rushing, H.L. Ballard, R. Bonney, H. Brown, D.M. Evans, R.A. French, T.B. Phillips, S.F. Ryan, L.A. Shanley, J.L. Shirk, K.F. Stepenuck, J.F. Weltzin, A. Wiggins, O.D. Boyle, R.D. Briggs, S.F. Chapin, D.A. Hewitt, P.W. Preuss, M.A. Soukup. 2017. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection. Biological Conservation 208 15-28. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.015.
  42. S. Belmecheri, F. Babst, A.R. Hudson, J.L. Betancourt, V. Trouet. 2017. Northern Hemisphere Jet Stream Position Indices as Diagnostic Tools for Climate and Ecosystem Dynamics. Earth Interactions 21 https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-16-0023.1.
  43. G.O.F.C. -GOLD. 2017. A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing. Eds: GOFCGOLD & GEO BON. Report v. UNCBD COP-13, GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. .
  44. L. Zhu, J. Meng, F. Li, N. You. 2017. Predicting the patterns of change in spring onset and false springs in China during the twenty-first century. International Journal of Biometeorology 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-017-1456-4.
  45. D. Peng, X. Zhang, C. Wu, W. Huang, A. Gonsamo, A.R. Huete, K. Didan, B. Tan, X. Liu, B. Zhang. 2017. Intercomparison and evaluation of spring phenology products using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations in the contiguous United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242 33-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.04.009.
  46. K.L. Gerst, N.L. Rossington, S.J. Mazer. 2017. Phenological responsiveness to climate differs among four species of Quercus in North America. Journal of Ecology https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12774.
  47. T.M. Crimmins, M.A. Crimmins, K.L. Gerst, A.H. Rosemartin, J.F. Weltzin. 2017. USA National Phenology Network’s volunteer-contributed observations yield predictive models of phenological transitions. PLOS One 12(8) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182919.
  48. E. Stancioff, B. Bisson, S. Randall, J. Muhlin, C. McDonough, S. Gallo. 2017. Signs of the Seasons: A New England Phenology Program. Maine Policy Review 26.2 19-26. .
  49. D.M. Browning, J.W. Karl, D. Morin, A.D. Richardson, C.E. Tweedie. 2017. Phenocams Bridge the Gap between Field and Satellite Observations in an Arid Grassland Ecosystem. Remote Sensing 9(10) https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9101071.
  50. R. Zurita-Milla, R. Goncalves, E. Izquierdo-Verdiguier, F.O. Ostermann, P. Soille, P.G. Marchetti. 2017. Exploring Vegetation Phenology At Continental Scales : Linking Temperature-Based Indices And Land Surface Phenological Metrics. Proceedings of the 2017 conference on big data from space (BiDS '17), 28-30 November 2017, Toulouse, France 63-66. .
  51. K.L. Paxton, F.R. Moore. 2017. Connecting the dots: Stopover strategies of an intercontinental migratory songbird in the context of the annual cycle. Ecology and Evolution https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3227.
  52. G. Filippa, E. Cremonese, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, O. Sonnentag, E. Humphreys, K. Hufkens, Y. Ryu, J. Verfaillie, U.Morra di Cella, A.D. Richardson. 2017. NDVI derived from near-infrared-enabled digital cameras: Applicability across different plant functional types. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology .
  53. D. Peng, C. Wu, C. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, H. Ye, S. Luo, X. Liu, Y. Hu, B. Fang. 2017. Spring green-up phenology products derived from MODIS NDVI and EVI: Intercomparison, interpretation and validation using National Phenology Network and AmeriFlux observations. Ecological Indicators 77 323-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.02.024.
  54. W.D. Pearse, C.C. Davis, D.W. Inouye, R.B. Primack, J. Davies. 2017. A statistical estimator for determining the limits of contemporary and historic phenology. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 1876–1882. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0350-0.
  55. C.S.A. Wallace, J.J. Walker, S.M. Skirvin, C. Patrick-Birdwell, J.F. Weltzin, H. Raichle. 2016. Mapping Presence and Predicting Phenological Status of Invasive Buffelgrass in Southern Arizona Using MODIS, Climate and Citizen Science Observation Data. Remote Sensing 8(7) 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8070524.
  56. A. Verger, I. Filella, F. Baret, J. Peñuelas. 2016. Vegetation baseline phenology from kilometric global LAI satellite products. Remote Sensing of Environment 178 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.057.
  57. A.J. Elmore, C.D. Stylinski, K. Pradhan. 2016. Synergistic Use of Citizen Science and Remote Sensing for Continental-Scale Measurements of Forest Tree Phenology. Remote Sensing Volume 5, Issue 8 https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8060502.
  58. I.W. Park. 2016. Timing the bloom season: a novel approach to evaluating reproductive phenology across distinct regional flora. Landscape Ecology Volume 31, Issue 7 1567–1579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-016-0339-0.
  59. Z. Labe, T. Ault, R. Zurita-Milla. 2016. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project. Climate Dynamics 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3313-2.
  60. W.B. Monahan, A.H. Rosemartin, K.L. Gerst, N.A. Fisichelli, T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz, J.E. Gross, J.F. Weltzin. 2016. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system. EcoSphere 7(10) https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1465.
  61. X. Wu, R. Zurita-Milla, M.J. Kraak. 2016. A novel analysis of spring phenological patterns over Europe based on co-clustering. Journal of Geophysical Resources Biogeosciences https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG003308.
  62. S.C. Elmendorf, K.D. Jones, B.I. Cook, J.M. Diez, C.A.F. Enquist, R.A. Hufft, M.O. Jones, S.J. Mazer, A.J. Miller-Rushing, D.J.P. Moore, M.D. Schwartz, J.F. Weltzin. 2016. The plant phenology monitoring design for The National Ecological Observatory Network. EcoSphere Volume 7, Issue 4 https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1303.
  63. R. Wang, J.A. Gamon, R.A. Montgomery, P.A. Townsend, A.I. Zygielbaum, K. Bitan, D. Tilman, J. Cavender-Bares. 2016. Seasonal Variation in the NDVI–Species Richness Relationship in a Prairie Grassland Experiment (Cedar Creek). Remote Sensing 8(2) 128 https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020128.
  64. J.F. Kelly, K.G. Horton, P.M. Stepanian, K.M. de Buers, T. Fagin, E.S. Bridge, P.B. Chilson. 2016. Novel measures of continental-scale avian migration phenology related to proximate environmental cues. Ecosphere Volume 7, Issue 9 https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1434.
  65. D.M. Browning, A. Rango, J.W. Karl, C.M. Laney, E.R. Vivoni, C.E. Tweedie. 2015. Emerging technological and cultural shifts advancing drylands research and management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13 52-60. https://doi.org/10.1890/140161.
  66. E.K. Melaas, M.A. Friedl, A.D. Richardson. 2015. Multi-scale modeling of spring phenology across Deciduous Forests in the Eastern United States. Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13122.
  67. K.L. Gerst, J. Kellerman, C.A.F. Enquist, A.H. Rosemartin, E.G. Denny. 2015. Estimating the onset of spring from a complex phenology database: Trade-offs across geographic scales. Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1036-4.
  68. S.J. Mazer, K.L. Gerst, E.R. Matthews, A. Evenden. 2015. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem. Ecosphere 6 (6) https://doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00433.1.
  69. M.L. McCormack, K.P. Gaines, M. Pastore, D.M. Eissenstat. 2015. Early season root production in relation to leaf production among six diverse temperate tree species. Plant Soil 389:121 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2347-7.
  70. K. Youssefel, M. Mouaadamine, M. Achraf, N. Boubker, M. Elhoussinee. 2015. Flowering and fruiting phenology, and physico-chemical characteristics of 2-year-old plants of six species of Opuntia from eight regions of Morocco. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 90(6) 682–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2015.11668731.
  71. M.B. Cleary, K.J. Naithani, B.E. Ewers, E. Pendall. 2015. Upscaling CO2 fluxes using leaf, soil and chamber measurements across successional growth stages in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 121 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.05.013.
  72. T. Ault, R. Zurita-Milla, M.D. Schwartz. 2015. A Matlab toolbox for calculating spring indices from daily meteorological data. Computers and Geosciences 83 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2015.06.015.
  73. E.M. Wood, J.L. Kellermann. 2015. Phenological Synchrony and Bird Migration: Changing Climate and Seasonal Resources in North America. Studies in Avian Biology 246. .
  74. D. Medvigy, S.Hee Kim, J. Kim, M.C. Kafatos. 2015. Dynamically downscaling predictions for deciduous tree leaf emergence in California under current and future climate. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1086-7.
  75. A.J. Allstadt, S.J. Vavrus, P.J. Heglund, A.M. Pidgeon, W.E. Thogmartin, V.C. Radeloff. 2015. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century. Environmental Research Letters Volume 10, Number 10 https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104008.
  76. D.C. McKinley, A.J. Miller-Rushing, H.L. Ballard, R.E. Bonney, H. Brown, D.M. Evans, R.A. French, J.K. Parrish, T.B. Phillips, S.F. Ryan, L.A. Shanley, J.L. Shirk, K.F. Stepenuck, J.F. Weltzin, A. .Wiggins, O.D. Boyle, R.D. Briggs, S.F. Chapin, D.A. Hewitt, P.W. Preuss, M.A. Soukup. 2015. Investing in Citizen Science Can Improve Natural Resource Management and Environmental Protection. Issues in Ecology 19 1-28. .
  77. X. Yue, N. Unger, T.F. Keenan, X. Zhang, C.S. Vogel. 2015. Probing the past 30 year phenology trend of US deciduous forests. Biogeosciences 12 4693–4709. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4693-2015.
  78. J.L. Kellermann, C.A.F. Enquist, D.L. Humple, N.E. Seavy, A.H. Rosemartin, R.L. Cormier, L.A. Barnett. 2015. A Bird’s-Eye View of the USA National Phenology Network, an Off-the-Shelf Monitoring Program. Phenological Synchrony and Bird Migration: Changing Climate and Seasonal Resources in North America 47-60. .
  79. A.L. Kern, G.H. Roehrig, D. Bhattacharya, J.Y. Wang, F.A. Finley, B.J. Reynolds, Y. Nam, M.P. Mueller, D.J. Tippins. 2015. Drawing on Place and Culture for Climate Change Education in Native Communities. EcoJustice, Citizen Science and Youth Activism, Environmental Discourses in Science Education 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11608-2_8.
  80. H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, A.H. Rosemartin, K.L. Gerst, J.F. Weltzin. 2015. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study. PLOS One https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140811.
  81. C. Hallman, H. Arnott. 2015. Morphological and Physiological Phenology of Pinus longaeva in the White Mountains of California. Tree Ring Research Volume 71 Issue 1 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3959/1536-1098-71.1.1.
  82. T. Ault, M.D. Schwartz, R. Zurita-Milla, J.F. Weltzin, J.L. Betancourt. 2015. Trends and natural variability of spring onset in the coterminous United States as evaluated by a new gridded dataset of spring indices. Journal of Climate .
  83. Y. Fu, S. Piao, Y. Vitasse, H. Zhao, H.J. De Boeck, Q. Liu, U. Weber, H. Hanninen, I.A. Janssens. 2015. Increased heat requirement for leaf flushing in temperate woody species over 1980-2012: effects of chilling, precipitation and insolation. Global Change Biology .
  84. P.D. Glynn, T. Owen. 2015. Review of the USA National Phenology Network. https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1411.
  85. A.H. Rosemartin, E.G. Denny, J.F. Weltzin, L. Marsh, B.E. Wilson, H. Mehdipoor, R. Zurita-Milla, M.D. Schwartz. 2015. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data 1956-2014. Nature Scientific Data 2 https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2015.38.
  86. S. Piao, J. Tan, A. Chen, Y.H. Fu, P. Ciais, Q. Liu, I.A. Janssens, S. Vicca, Z. Zeng, S.J. Jeong, Y. Li, R.B. Myneni, S. Peng, M. Shen, J. Peñuelas. 2015. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature. Nature Communications 6 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7911.
  87. P.L. Warren, L.A. Barnett. 2014. Phenology: Using Phenology as a tool for Education, Research, and Understanding Environmental Change. University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Cooperative Extension AZ1633 .
  88. A.H. Rosemartin, T.M. Crimmins, C.A.F. Enquist, K.L. Gerst, J.L. Kellerman, E.E. Posthumus, J.F. Weltzin, E.G. Denny, P. Guertin, L.R. Marsh. 2014. Organizing Phenological Data Resources to Inform Natural Resource Conservation. Biological Conservation .
  89. D.S. Chapman, T. Haynes, S. Beal, F. Essl, amesM. Bullock. 2014. Phenology predicts the native and invasive range limits of common ragweed. Global Change Biology Vol. 20, Issue 1 192–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12380.
  90. K.K. Fuccillo, T.M. Crimmins, C.E. deRivera, T.S. Elder. 2014. Assessing accuracy in volunteer-based plant phenology monitoring. International Journal of Biometeorology https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0892-7.
  91. T.M. Crimmins, J.F. Weltzin, A.H. Rosemartin, E.M. Surina, L.R. Marsh, E.G. Denny. 2014. Targeted campaign increases activity among participants in Nature’s Notebook, a citizen science project.. Natural Sciences Education 43 64-72. .
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